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Chapter Summary 2. For each chapter you are to put together a 2-3 page outline (with main headings and subheadings). Outline the main ideas with supporting points. No need to be overly detailed. The book is easy to outline. Look at the main headings in bold. Choose the ones that you think are most important (maybe all of them, maybe just some of them) and outline those sections. Answer the following questions for each chapter:
What do you think are the two most interesting topics discussed in the chapter? Why?
Give an example of something in the news that pertains to what you read in the chapter.
This assignment must be typed and submitted electronically in MS Word (.docx) format. The file must be named in the following format: Lastname_CSummary2. Submit your completed document to Chapter Summary 2, listed on the Modules and Assignments pages, as a file attachment.
what to base of of:
police also foster law compliance and provide an array of services that are not directly linked to crime. Almost 80 percent of a patrol officer’s time is devoted to activities other than law enforcement. However, the law enforcement image dominates the public face of the police.Because the law reflects the collective will of a people, the police are the “muscle” behind that society’s law. Those who do not voluntarily obey the law will have it imposed upon them; the police are the primary means by which the law is imposed. Egon Bittner described the role of the police as “a mechanism for the distribution of non-negotiably coercive force employed in accordance with the dictates of an intuitive grasp of situational exigencies” (1970: 46). Although other occupations and social institutions have the right to use force in a limited set of cir-cumstances (e.g., to restrain a patient who may hurt himself or to discipline chil-dren), only the police have a general mandate to use force for the common good.The police may use force to ensure that the law is obeyed and public order preserved. When the police actually use force is the essence of police discretion (Brown 1981). It is not possible to write a law, or a rule, that will cover every pos-sible situation the police might encounter. Nor will the police necessarily know with certainty every factual matter that attends every call they answer. The police combine their knowledge with the array of verbal and nonverbal information that attends each unique situation, make an accurate judgment about what is going on (the “situational exigencies”), and decide on the proper response.
Not every police action is a coercive one, of course. The right to use force on behalf of society lies behind many of the other things police do. In broad terms, there are three primary responsibilities of police work: law enforcement, order maintenance, and service. These aspects were first explored by James Q. Wilson in his 1968 book Varieties of Police Behavior.Law Enforcement“Enforcing the law” by apprehending criminals after crimes occur is an impor-tant part of police work, but it is only one element of the law enforcement mission. The entertainment media portray policing as an exciting career of hunting crimi-nals, thwarting robberies in progress, engaging in high-speed car chases, making dynamic entries, and apprehending desperate criminals. In truth, these events happen infrequently. The police are far more likely to deal with crimes commit-ted by people who are drunk, depressed, mentally ill, or simply overwhelmed by life stresses than they are with crimes committed by so-called master criminals.Tense confrontations, take-down moves, and an enticing array of high-tech weaponry and science seem to be the tools of the trade. Although these are important, by far the most important tools are patience, good communication skills, and knowledge of human psychology. The ability to enforce the law by bringing criminals to justice rests in large part on the willingness of the public to cooperate with the police (Black 1981; Mastrofski, Snipes, and Supina 1996). The foundation for that is laid in the routine interaction between police and citizens in the course of everyday, non-emergency activities.
lab55871_ch03_053-081.indd 57 05/28/18 06:12 PMvacant residences or looking in on vulnerable adults, aiding with traffic control at road construction and emergency scenes, and many more services are provided by local police and sheriffs’ deputies.Because of this wide diversity of tasks, police officers are trained to be gen-eralists. Most officers begin their careers doing uniformed patrol work. They will be called upon to answer an almost unimaginable array of different needs. These include assisting in childbirth, breaking up fights, talking down suicidal “jump-ers,” interviewing abused children, trading gunfire with desperate criminals, in-tervening in domestic arguments, assisting mentally ill and confused persons, and investigating corrupt police officers.Police officers frequently describe their work as “long hours of sheer bore-dom, punctuated by moments of sheer terror.” In contrast to Hollywood portray-als, the reality of police work is that exciting events happen infrequently and favorable results can be elusive. Those who expect exciting careers in law enforce-ment are likely to find that much of their time is devoted to social work, helping people cope with life, occasionally resolving low-level problems, and building interpersonal relationships with the community.THE ROLE OF POLICE IN SOCIETYThroughout history, the police in Anglo-American so
society have reflected the con-ditions and needs of the dominant society, even though periodically the police have been slow to recognize and adapt to legitimate social change. The police must operate in the tension between rapidly changing social conditions and a conservative, slow-to-change legal environment. Individual, organizational, and subcultural changes usually develop more slowly than the larger social ones, often creating visible tensions between the police and parts of the community. That was true of the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s, and certain aspects of present conditions seem to be harbingers of a reprise of that era.Web ActivityStudents who are interested in the historical development of the English and Ameri-can police, as well as a discussion of different American police eras, can find material on the textbook’s website (http://www.oup.com/us/labessentials).At the same time, the police today are far more professional than their gener-ational predecessors of earlier eras and in general much less “tools” to be wielded by local politicians. For instance, when President Trump made off-hand remarks to the effect that arrestees should be roughed up, the police were generally out-spoken. Many chiefs and departments made public statements to the effect that such behavior was neither legal nor ethical, and that the standards of behavior ConstablesIn many areas of the country, the old office of constable has been abolished or restricted to minor court and service duties. In Texas, the office of constable is comparable in many ways to the sheriff or the county police, generally serving court writs but also providing patrol services in some areas.Special PoliceState laws authorize police forces for special limited purposes, such as railroads (which run through multiple jurisdictions), college campuses, school districts, mass-transit systems, and parks and woodlands. The best known is the Port Au-thority of New York and New Jersey Police, which lost many officers in the Sep-tember 11, 2001, attack on the World Trade Center.A variation on the “special police” concept is the part-time officers (variously called “reserves,” “special officers,” or “auxiliary officers,” among other titles) who work for municipal, county, and sheriffs’ departments in addition to their regular jobs. They may work on either an hourly paid basis or as volunteers, de-pending on the agency and the state’s authorizing statutes. With proper training, they may perform full police duties, especially in rural areas. Otherwise, they supplement regular police in support roles: directing traffic, providing crowd control at major events such as concerts and fairs, and assisting in a variety of roles. Many sheriffs’ departments have “sheriffs’ posses” who can be called upon
StateState police functions take one of two forms. State police have standard law en-forcement duties and general jurisdiction throughout the state. State patrols or highway patrols primarily enforce traffic laws on state highways; they have police powers and training but no general police jurisdiction. States with highway pa-trols may also have an independent bureau of criminal investigation that pro-vides criminal investigation and crime lab services throughout the state. Other elements of state government may employ investigators and officers with special police powers, such as the welfare, motor vehicle, revenue, alcoholic beverage control, and natural resources departments. Some jurisdictions grant police powers to corrections employees, especially probation and parole officers.FederalFederal agencies have specific powers and jurisdiction under federal law and do not enforce state or local laws. There are more than 90 federal law enforcement agencies, including the Border Patrol, Customs Service, Federal Protective Ser-vices, U.S. Mint Police, and smaller police forces for various parts of the federal government (e.g., the Capitol, Supreme Court, and the Environmental Protection
lab55871_ch03_053-081.indd 71 05/28/18 06:12 PMPolice officers are often supervisors for civilianized support units, such as Dispatch or Records. In addition to knowledge of the various police jobs that the unit supports, they have the legal authority to handle difficult questions and re-quests, and they can provide technical knowledge of the criminal and procedural laws when needed.ENDURING ELEMENTS AND ISSUESAcross the multiple types and approaches to policing, there are certain themes common to the American police. Many of them center on what scholars call the police subculture, the views of the world shared by many police officers. Police discretion, the use of force, corruption, handling of special constituencies, and relations with the community, particularly minority citizens, are all intertwined with this difficult-to-define concept.Police SubcultureThe idea of a police subculture at odds with mainstream society stemmed from the politically charged era of the 1960s. Two schools of thought emerged to explain the adversarial relationships of the day. Police opponents viewed the overwhelmingly Caucasian, almost entirely male police as racist, ignorant, au-thoritarian, and thuggish, completely out of t
The other school of thought held that people were drawn to police work out of a sense of altruism, but the nature of police work transformed them. The major scholars of the police of the 1960s drew a picture of police whose “working per-sonality” was marked by concepts of danger, authority, and cynicism (Niederhof-fer 1967; Skolnick 1966). The nature of their work meant dealing with people at their worst, handling problems of abuse and death on a regular basis, being per-sonally reviled, and having their motives questioned. These combined to harden police officers, bringing about a defense mechanism. Those scholars also noted that the police were given to the use of stereotypes as a “perceptual shorthand” to discern and minimize danger.The wider admission of women and minorities to policing has had some impact on police culture, but certain common themes are still recognized. Police officers work within a moral framework as much as a legal one, assessing situ-ations on the basis of their assessment of the persons with whom they interact. A feeling of “us against them” predominates in many areas, although commu-nity policing has broken down that attitude in many others. Crank (1998) sum-marized many of the themes of police culture: the necessity and righteousness of force; reliance upon an undefined “common sense” and personal bravery in the face of sudden and potential danger; and a moral division of the world into “good” and “bad” people, with the police as a “thin blue line” between civiliza-tion and chaos. Others include solidarity in the face of opposition, individualism and personal autonomy, unpredictability, and survi
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