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General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT): Tariff Barriers, Non-tariff Barriers and Non-discrimination
Use reading materials on Blacboard to prepare answers to the following seminar Questions:
Tariff Barriers, Non-tariff Barriers
1. Discuss the WTO rules governing tariff negotiations.
2. What are tariff concessions or tariff bindings?
3. The main non-tariff barriers to trade in goods are quantitative restrictions and “other non-tariff barriers”.
(a) Are quantitative restrictions allowed under WTO law? (See Article XI: 1 GATT 1994).
(b) What is meant by “other non-tariff barriers” to trade?
On tariffs see https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/tariffs_e/tariffs_e.htm
Principles of Non-Discrimination: National Treatment and the Most Favoured Nation (MFN) Treatment
4. Examine the following key principles of the WTO trading system.
(a) Most-Favoured-Nation (or MFN) treatment (see GATT 1947, Art. 1). MFN treatment obligation prohibits discrimination among goods, services or service suppliers of different foreign origins (or with different foreign destinations)
(b) National treatment (see GATT 1947, Art. III). What is the purpose of the national treatment principle? National treatment obligation prohibits discrimination between foreign goods, services and service suppliers and domestic goods, services and service suppliers.
Read relevant WTO case law on MFN and National Treatment in any of the course textbooks set out above and/or in the WTO case summaries on Blackboard.
You should read the Report of the WTO Appellate Body, Japan – Taxes on Alcoholic Beverages WT/DS8/AB/R WT/DS10/AB/R WT/DS11/AB/R, Adopted 11 November 1996, http://www.worldtradelaw.net/reports/wtoab/japan-alcohol(ab).pdf
(c) Binding of tariffs (see GATT 1947, Art. XXVIII).
(d) Tariffication (see GATT 1947, Art. XI).
See WTO, Principles of the trading system, https://www.wto.org/english/thewto_e/whatis_e/tif_e/fact2_e.htm
5. Are there any exceptions to the above principles? Consider:
(a) General exceptions (see GATT 1947, Art. XX).
(b) Security exceptions (see GATT 1947, Art. XXI).
(c) Regional trading arrangements (see GATT 1947, Art. XXIV).
(d) Developing States (see GATT 1947, Art. XVIII; XVI: 8; XXXVII).
See WTO rules and environmental policies: GATT exceptions, https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/envir_e/envt_rules_exceptions_e.htm
Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on global trade
6. Examine the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on global trade.
See: COVID-19 and world world trade, https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/covid19_e/covid19_e.htm
WTO Annual Report 2021, https://www.wto.org/english/res_e/booksp_e/anrep_e/anrep21_spotlight_covid_e.pdf
Read the following Report of the WTO Appellate Body, Japan – Taxes on Alcoholic Beverages WT/DS8/AB/R WT/DS10/AB/R WT/DS11/AB/R, Adopted 11 November 1996, http://www.worldtradelaw.net/reports/wtoab/japan-alcohol(ab).pdf
Prepare a case note (no longer than 600 words) setting out the following:
(i) Summary of facts
(ii) Dispute between parties (measure or product at issue)
(iii) Summary of legal arguments
(iv) Panel/Appellate Body findings
(v) Your comments – Did the Appellate Body correctly interpret and apply the law on to the facts?
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