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Select two different students/topics and discuss the difference between various



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Select two different students/topics and discuss the difference between various cells and the role these cells play in specific disease processes.
1. The shape, structure, form, and size of cells are all determined by cell morphology (Smith et al., 2017). When a cell’s type, form, or size changes, this is referred to as morphology. In bacteriology, cell morphology refers to the size and shape of bacteria, such as cocci, bacilli, spirals, and so on. (Smith et al., 2017). According to Dlugasch & Story (2020), cellular morphogenesis is important in developmental biology. Normal cells have uniform, ellipsoid shapes, whereas cancer cells are generally irregular and curved. Morphological cell characteristics, for example, play an important role in cancer diagnosis. It’s also important in cell culture, tissue engineering, and the development of new biomarkers. The morphology of cells refers to the study of how cells are shaped, as there is a variety of differently shaped cells. A cell’s shape plays a fundamental role in the corresponding tissue that it along with its fellow cells create. In general, tissues are made of groups of cells that share a common structure, and this structure allows for certain types of functions that are seen in the organs these cells create. There are three main types of tissues, they are: epithelial, connective, muscle, and neural. Each of these tissues works very differently than the other precisely because of the difference in structure and function of its component cells. For example, epithelial cells line the outside of the body as well as interior passageways. Since these cells are exposed to the external environment they must have protective functions (Dlugasch & Story, 2021).
Case Study: An 18 year old male presents with ADHD, small testes and learning disabilities. After a workup it is determined that he has a kerotype 47 XXY.
1.The processes of meiosis and mitosis are used to divide cells on a regular basis. Mitosis is a portion of the cell cycle that includes prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. Mitosis is the division of cells into two identical daughter cells (Dlugasch & Story, 2019). Centrioles arrange chromosomes during prophase, and chromosomes align and spindle fibers attach during metaphase. Centrosomes pull on spindle fibers to split chromatids during anaphase, and a new nuclear envelope forms during telophase (Dlugasch & Story, 2019). Meiosis on the other hand, is the division of cells into four haploid daughter cells and there is meiosis I and meiosis II. During Meiosis one 46 chromosomes are condensed during Prophase I, Metaphase I, Anaphase I, Telophase I that is followed by interphase without chromosome duplication in S phase. Meiosis II progresses exactly as mitosis where two haploid cells become 4 haploid cells containing a single copy of each chromosome.
2.The transport of solutes from high-concentration areas to low-concentration areas is referred to as diffusion (Dlugasch & Story, 2019). Active transport occurs when a moves from a lower concentration to a higher concentration against a concentration gradient. Water or other solvents are moved across the cellular membrane from a low solute or high water area to a low water area by osmosis (Dlugasch & Story, 2019).
3.Many genetic illnesses are the result of gene alterations that occur in cells or during cell division. As a result, some illnesses can impact many body systems, and the majority of them are incurable. Gene therapy involves the replacement of a defective gene or the addition of a new gene in the hopes of healing diseases and improving our bodies’ ability to resist sickness. Unfortunately, there is no cure for Flinefetler syndrome in this patient, but medication is available to help them live a good quality of life.
Smith, W. P. J., Davit, Y., Osborne, J. M., Kim, W., Foster, K. R., & Pitt-Francis, J. M. (2017). Cell morphology drives spatial patterning in microbial communities. PNAS.
Dlugasch, L., & Story, L. (2019). Applied pathophysiology for the advanced practice nurse (1st ed.). Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Turriff, A., Macnamara, E., Levy, H. P., & Biesecker, B. (2016). The impact of living with klinefelter syndrome: A qualitative exploration of adolescents and adults. Journal of Genetic Counseling, 26(4), 728–737.
2. Cells are microorganisms that have developed over time (Dlugasch & Story, 2021). The cell is the simplest and smallest living structure within an organism. Cell morphology helps identify the shape, form, and size of cells. There are cells of different shapes and sizes, they are tiny cells such as those found within bacteria, and there are macroscopic cells such as those found in the oocytes of certain species. The cell’s shape varies depending on the conditions to which it is exposed. Cells have no function working individually; each cell must be part of a group to develop a characteristic task (Dlugasch & Story, 2021). An example of those mentioned above are found within the epithelial, connective, muscular, and neuronal tissues since these tissues are formed of cells with similar shape and tasks.
Case Study
A 15 year old male presents after ingesting windshield wiper fluid to get high. Explain what will happen to the following:
Sodium levels
Oncotic pressure
Methanol is found in various household cleaning products and industrial products; one of these products is windshield wiper fluid. Methanol is highly toxic, and its intake is severe if it is not treated in time, the morbidity and mortality rates due to the intake of this product can be very considerable (Ashurst & Nappe, 2018)
Within our body, there are constantly fluid exchanges due to osmosis. In osmosis, water and other solvents change from a region of low concentration to another area with high concentration through a semi-permeable membrane (Dlugasch & Story, 2021). Ingested methanol is rapidly absorbed within the gastrointestinal system, and the product of this passes into total body wáter. The liver metabolizes alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase (Ashurts & Nappe, 2019).
Sodium levels
When the osmolarity increases and the water in the blood decreases, or there is an increase in solutions such as sodium, chloride, and glucose, our body excretes the antidiuretic hormone to conserve wáter. Through this, the kidneys create more concentrated urine to save water, and this process dissolves sodium in the blood, causing hyponatremia. Hyponatremia causes vomiting, sweating, and kidney failure due to methanol poisoning (Gau & Scott, 2018).
Oncotic pressure
The oncotic pressure is a type of osmotic pressure made by proteins such as albumin. Albumin is essential for the body to reduce osmotic pressure to promote edema. Albumin is an intravascular colloid and maintains oncotic plasma pressure slightly higher than tissue fluid. Methanol is digested in the gastrointestinal tract, and it does not adhere to any protein, and is absorbed into total body water (Ashurst & Nappe, 2019). Due to the above, albumin is forced to leave the cells with the help of methanol, thereby causing a decrease in oncotic pressure.
Ashurst, J.V., & Nappe, T.M. (2019). Methanol Toxicity. Treasure Island, Florida: StatPearls Publishing. Retrieved from
Dlugasch, L., & Story, L. (2019). Applied pathophysiology for the advanced practice nurse (1st ed.). Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Gau, N., & Scott, M. G. (2018). Fill in the gaps: An unresponsive 55-year-old man. Clinical Chemistry, 64(7), 1001-1005. doi: 10.1373/clinchem.2017.280842



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