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Please complete all four parts of this assignment (A, B, C, and D). Where you are required to answer in writing, please use complete sentences and/or paragraphs, and be as clear, coherent, and accurate as possible.
Your summaries should provide enough detail to allow someone who has not read the passages to have a clear and accurate understanding of the arguments you are summarizing. Further, the justifications used to support your evaluations of the arguments should be sufficiently detailed to demonstrate the accuracy of your evaluation to someone who has not taken PHIL 252. Always write as if your audience is intelligent but uninformed.
Part A (10%)
Put the following argument in standard form. Identify the form of the argument; evaluate whether the premises are true or false; and then decide if it is valid, and explain why or why not.
If you want to live a better life, then you should spend time in nature. But, you have to work all the time, so you can’t spend time in nature. Therefore, you shouldn’t work all the time.
Question 1 (10%)
Test the following argument for validity using a Venn diagram. Be sure to label your diagram and indicate whether the syllogism is valid or not.
No S are P
Some S are M
Therefore, Some M are P
Question 2 (15%)
Supply the missing premise or conclusion of the following enthymeme in such a way that the resulting syllogisms are valid. Write the syllogisms in standard form, and test them for validity using Venn diagrams. Be sure to indicate how you are abbreviating the terms involved, label your diagrams clearly, and explain whether the syllogisms are valid or not.
No fruits are sour. Therefore, no pineapples are sour.
In paragraph form, summarize each of the following passages, and identify and explain the fallacies they demonstrate. Your paragraph should demonstrate your understanding of how to identify and evaluate arguments according to your learning in Units 1–5, concentrating on Unit 5 (identifying argument forms for validity and soundness, identifying and explaining fallacies, etc.).
Note: The passages might contain more than one fallacy.
Question 1 (20%)
Higher salaries for nurses means better care for patients, and thus longer life spans for every Canadian. The Association of Nurse Employment released their member surveys saying that a significant number of nurses agree that they would give better care if their salaries were higher.
Nurses with high salaries will retire early because they have more money. So, we should prepare for a mass retirement by recruiting a million nurses by next year, otherwise life expectancy in Canada will decline.
Question 2 (20%)
Referral process impeding individual liberty
Why do I have to go to my family physician to determine whether or not I need to see a specialist? I pay for the healthcare system just like everyone else, so I should be able to see whatever doctor I want, when I want.
Family physicians are only experts in general medicine, not the specialties they refer me to. How could they know which specialist I need to see? My friend Larry’s family physician didn’t refer him to a cardiologist before his heart attack, and he died. This referral system is costing lives.
I think the family physicians are just lining their pockets with additional appointments for referrals. I think we all know what kind of money they make.
Part D (25%)
Write a short critical essay (800 words) that analyses and evaluates the extended passage below, “Photo Radar Just Lining City Council’s Pockets.” Your essay should demonstrate your understanding of how to identify and evaluate arguments according to your learning in Units 1–5, concentrating on Unit 5 (identifying argument forms for validity and soundness, identifying and explaining fallacies, etc.).
Photo Radar Just Lining City Council’s Pockets
City council needs to get rid of photo radar right now! It is a mere cash grab set up to inflate their budgets and punish those of us who follow the rules 99% of the time. If they do not remove the photo radar from my street, I will start an online campaign that shows how useless these speed traps are. What is the purpose of city council if not to serve the constituents? I believe my interests are not being served.
Firstly, photo radar doesn’t even catch the person while they are speeding, so nothing is being stopped. In other words, if no one was speeding, then we would know with certainty that photo radar works. But people keep speeding. This is because photo radar is merely a passive way of punishing speeders: The only way to truly deter is to catch them in the act.
Secondly, what do they need so much extra money for? We all know that the more they bring in, the more they will spend anyway. So, obviously they will just add more and more photo radar since they depend on the income from photo radar now. Look at all the money they wasted building that soccer facility—I don’t even play soccer!
My cousin has been in road construction for 30 years, and he says that photo radar doesn’t deter people from speeding anyway. He has seen it time and again on the job. He is building the road and they set up photo radar where no one can see it, so how will they know when to slow down???
I have received three photo radar tickets this month for going only two kilometers over the limit on my street. This is beyond unfair. This is taking money away from my children and their financial security. Does city council want my children to starve?
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