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Briefly explain how you will address each of the following. This outline will serve as the organizational framework for the second half of your final paper.
***(Keep in mind this is all hypothetical; you will NOT actually be carrying out your study.)
Use bullet points to construct your outline.
Part 1: Procedure
What type of study will you be conducting? (Experimental or Non-experimental)
Will you use surveys, experiments, field experiments, ex post facto design, interviews, naturalistic or systematic observation, focus groups, archival research, etc.?
(If experimental) how many conditions (groups) are there? What are the conditions?
How will you recruit your participants?
What will the participants “do” during your study?
Will you have research assistants to help you? What is their role (e.g., for inter-rater reliability)?
Will you provide compensation for participation in your study? If yes, how much and when?
What level of IRB review will be required?
How will you address informed consent (and/or assent)?
(Any other specific details about your study design should be included here. )
Part 2: Participants
What are the sample characteristics of your study? (Explain the demographic make-up of your sample, e.g., gender, race/ethnicity, age, socioeconomic status, education level, other relevant characteristics such as psychological or physical conditions)
How many participants will be a part of your study (e.g., what will the sample size be?) What sampling technique will you use?
Part 3: Measures
What specific measures/equipment do you plan to use to assess your…
Independent variable (if doing an experiment, explain how you will manipulate your IV)
Dependent variable (how will you measure the DV? Will you use a questionnaire, interview, survey data, etc.?)
Any other relevant variables (i.e., moderators, mediators)
How will you establish the reliability and validity of your measures? (e.g., for reliability—internal consistency, inter-rater, test-retest?) (for validity—face, content, predictive, convergent, etc.)?
*NOTE: Include citations for already-established measures; otherwise, you need to include details about a measure you are hypothetically using (e.g., how to establish if it is reliable and valid
Below is the intro and Hypothesis
To start, all investigations or research needs a hypothesis. The hypothesis is a base to have correlative results. This hypothesis will be quantitive research. Therefore, a theory has to be made. An idea does not confirm or deny the study’s results (Hernandez Sampieri, Callado, and Batista Lucio 2006). Therefore, the following will be posed. In this day and age, we all are glued to our technology devices. Thus, Social media negatively impacts cognitive operations such as memory, problem-solving, decision-making, and intelligence, especially among young women.
The more significant exposure young women have to social media decreases their cognitive activity.
Xanidis, N (2006). The Association Between the use of social media, sleep quality, and cognitive function during the day: Sciencedirect, vol 55, 121-126. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2015.09.004.
Yang, H., Wang, J. J., Tng, G. Y. Q., & Yang, S. (2020). Effects of Social Media and Smartphone Use on Body Esteem in Female Adolescents: Testing a Cognitive and Affective Model. Children, 7(9), 148. https://doi.org/10.3390/children7090148
Peters, K., Chen, Y., Kaplan, A.M. Ognibeni, B. and Pauwels, K. (2013), Social media metrics a framework and guidelines for managing social media Journal of Interactive Marketing, Vol. 27 No. 4, pp. 281-298. https://doi.org/10.1108/YC-07-2016-00622
Ruane, L. and Wallace, E. (2013), Generation Y females online: insights from brand narratives, Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, Vol. 16 No. 3, pp. 315-335. https://doi.org/10.1108/YC-07-2016-00622
Grabe, S., Ward, L. M., & Hyde, J. S. (2008). The role of the media in body image concerns among women: A meta-analysis of experimental and correlational studies. Psychological Bulletin, 134(3), 460–476. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.134.3.460
Internet use is a regular part of daily life, particularly for young people (Jones et al., 2007). some of the social platforms used include Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Linkedin, and many more, referred to as “social media.” In particular, social networking websites have seen a rapid surge in usage. Young adults mostly use social networking sites, and their popularity has grown significantly in the past few years (Kuss & Griffiths, 2011). The rise in social communication sites and the amount of time spent on them prompted the inquiry into the influence of social media on women’s cognitive activity.
This paper aims to identify how young women’s use of social media affects their cognitive activity.
The sociocultural theory says that girls and women learn about beauty standards from different kinds of media. These requirements cover weight, physical appearance, and general physical demand. Nevertheless, understanding beauty standards are only sometimes helpful. For example, Grosz et al. (2002) found that media indications about heaviness and appearance are some of the essential cultural inspirations for women’s body disappointment and desire to be slim. Thompson et al. (1999) say that women have more body image problems because of “appearance culture,” which supports and believes in the cultural ideals of beauty and fascination that models promote. Comparing oneself to others is one of the essential things people do. Festinger’s social comparison theory explains how people determine where they fit by comparing themselves to others. Festinger’s theory says that everyone needs to evaluate their skills because what they think and believe about themselves will affect how they act in a given situation (Scirrotto Drames, 2016). Thus, using social media and having misconceptions from there about several standards can affect women’s cognitive activity.
Much empirical evidence suggests that Western social standards for feminine beauty are related to young women’s and girls’ negative self-evaluations (Grabe et al., 2008). Statistics and lab study data back up the claim that women’s acquaintance with the media discomforts their body image and happiness with their appearance (Want, 2009). Field et al. (1999) found a link between exposure to fashion magazines and media and unhappiness with your body. Scholars have said that social networking sites are significant to how the media affects women’s development. Their thorough investigations of Internet activity supported this. We still need to find out exactly how women’s use of social networking sites may change how they think and act. Therefore, the current study aims to determine how social media affects young women’s cognition.
The proposed study
Before conducting the study, the researcher will review many articles on the selected topic to identify the limitations of previous research. It will help the researcher to focus on the problems and drawbacks, look at the actual situation, and pull out authentic information. After reviewing some articles, the researcher identified some variables for the proposed study. The independent variable of the proposed research is social media, and the dependent variable is the cognitive activities of young women. Some things that can act as mediators are how long someone uses social media, where they live (home, mess, hostel, hall, or somewhere else), what time of day or night they use social media, when they go to sleep, which platform of social media they use. The study hypothesizes that “the more significant exposure young women have to social media decreases their cognitive activity.” A survey will be conducted to collect primary data from the field, and after that, a binary logistic regression will help with hypothesis testing.
Field, A. E., Cheung, L., Wolf, A. M., Herzog, D. B., Gortmaker, S. L., & Colditz, G. A. (1999). Exposure to the mass media and weight concerns among girls. Pediatrics, 103(3), e36-e36.
Grabe, S., Ward, L. M., & Hyde, J. S. (2008). The role of the media in body image concerns among women: a meta-analysis of experimental and correlational studies. Psychological Bulletin, 134(3), 460.
Groesz, L. M., Levine, M. P., & Murnen, S. K. (2002). The effect of experimental presentation of thin media images on body satisfaction: A meta‐analytic review. International Journal of eating disorders, 31(1), 1-16.
Jones, S., Johnson-Yale, C., Perez, F. S., & Schuler, J. (2007). The Internet landscape in college. Teachers College Record, 109(14), 39–51.
Kuss, D. J., & Griffiths, M. D. (2011). Addiction to social networks on the internet: A literature review of empirical research. International Journal of Environmental and Public Health, 8(9), 3528–3552.
Scirrotto Drames, T. (2016). The Impact of Internet Social Networking on Young Women’s Mood and Body Image Satisfaction: An Experimental Design.
Thompson, J. K., Heinberg, L. J., Altabe, M., & Tantleff-Dunn, S. (1999). Exacting beauty: Theory, assessment, and treatment of body image disturbance. American Psychological Association.
Want, S. C. (2009). Meta-analytic moderators of experimental exposure to media portrayals of women on female appearance satisfaction: Social comparisons as automatic processes. Body image, 6(4), 257-269.
the main thing I would like you to think about going forward is whether you are interested in how social media affects things like self-concept, self-esteem, or body image rather than cognition per se. If you still plan to focus on cognition, then you should make it clear what exactly you mean by that (e.g., thinking, beliefs, memories, perception, etc.)
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